Gordon Kohse

Profile Information
Name
Gordon Kohse
Institution
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Position
Deputy Director, Research and Services
Affiliation
Nuclear Reactor Laboratory
Expertise
Accident Tolerant Fuel, Instrumentation, Molten Salt, Nuclear Fuel
Publications:
"ATR NSUF instrumentation enhancement efforts" David Carpenter, Mujid Kazimi, Gordon Kohse, John Stempien, Nuclear Technology Vol. 173 2011 66-77 Link
A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide improved in-pile instrumentation to users.
"Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC" Michel Barsoum, Lingfeng He, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, Brenda Garcia-Diaz, Robert Sindelar, Journal of Nuclear materials Vol. 468 2015 1-13 Link
Herein we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation e up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 C or 695 ± 25 C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b ¼ 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ± 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1  1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC wasz1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3  1021 loops/ m3. After irradiation at 350 C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.
"Effect of neutron irradiation on select MAX phases" Michel Barsoum, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, Acta Materialia Vol. 85 2014 132-143 Link
Abstract—Herein we report on the effect of neutron irradiation – of up to 0.1 displacements per atom at 360(20) C or 695(25) C – on polycrystalline samples of Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlN. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns of the irradiated samples showed irradiation enhanced dissociation into TiC of the Ti3AlC2 and Ti3SiC2 phases, most prominently in the former. Ti2AlN also showed an increase in TiN content, as well as Ti4AlN3 after irradiation. In contrast, Ti2AlC was quite stable under these irradiation conditions. Dislocation loops are seen to form in Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 after irradiation at 360(20) C. The room temperature electrical resistivity of all samples increased by an order of magnitude after irradiation at 360(20) C, but only by 25% after 695(25) C, providing evidence for the MAX phases’ dynamic recovery at temperatures as low at 695(25) C. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that Ti2AlC and Ti3SiC2 are the more promising materials for high-temperature nuclear applications.
"Hydride fuel irradiation in MITR-II: Thermal design and validation results" Sung Joong Kim, David Carpenter, Gordon Kohse, Lin-wen Hu, Nuclear Engineering and Design Vol. 277 2014 1-14 Link
"Irradiation effects on thermal properties of LWR hydride fuel" Mehdi Balooch, Donald Olander, Kurt Terrani, David Carpenter, Gordon Kohse, Dennis Keiser, Mitch Meyer, Journal of Nuclear Materials Vol. 486 2017 381-390 Link
Three hydride mini-fuel rods were fabricated and irradiated at the MIT nuclear reactor with a maximum burnup of 0.31% FIMA or ∼5 MWd/kgU equivalent oxide fuel burnup. Fuel rods consisted of uranium-zirconium hydride (U (30 wt%)ZrH1.6) pellets clad inside a LWR Zircaloy-2 tubing. The gap between the fuel and the cladding was filled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy to eliminate the gas gap and the large temperature drop across it. Each mini-fuel rod was instrumented with two thermocouples with tips that are axially located halfway through the fuel centerline and cladding surface. In-pile temperature measurements enabled calculation of thermal conductivity in this fuel as a function of temperature and burnup. In-pile thermal conductivity at the beginning of test agreed well with out-of-pile measurements on unirradiated fuel and decreased rapidly with burnup.
"Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers" Joshua Daw, Gordon Kohse, Joe Palmer, Pradeep Ramuhalli, Brian Reinhardt, Joy Rempe, Bernhard Tittmann, Robert Montgomery, Jean-Francois Villard, H. T. Chien, ANIMMA 2013 Special Edition, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Vol. 61 2013 1-7 Link
Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.
"Mechanical Strength of CTP Triplex Tubes after Irradiation in MIT Research Reactor under PWR Coolant Conditions" David Carpenter, Herbert Feinroth, Gordon Kohse, Matthew Ales, Eric Barringer, Roger Jaramillo, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings Vol. 3 2009 47-59 Link
An experiment was conducted in the MIT Research Reactor (MITR) to irradiate triplex silicon carbide fuel cladding tubes under typical Pressurized Water Reactor conditions. Measurements were made to determine the impact of exposure on strength and swelling. The Sic clad tubes were fabricated by Ceramic Tubular Products (CTP) with dimensions typical of 15 x 15 commercial PWR reactor fuel. The triplex tubes contain 3 layers, an inner monolithic Sic layer to maintain hermeticity, a central SiCiSiC composite layer to provide a graceful failure mode in the event of an accident, and an outer Sic environmental barrier layer. Clad tubes were exposed to 300 OC pressurized water containing boric acid, lithium hydroxide, and hydrogen overpressure, typical of PWRs. Thirty nine (39) specimens of various types were exposed to coolant, some within the neutron flux region and some outside the neutron flux region. Twenty seven (27) were removed for examination and test after 4 months exposure. Following examination, twenty specimens were reinserted for additional exposure, along with 19 new specimens. The 4 month specimens were weighed and measured at MIT, and some were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) where they were mechanically tested for hoop strength using a polyurethane plug test apparatus. Results were compared with the preirradiation strength and dimensions. Some specimens retained their original strength after exposure, others with a less homogeneous monolith, lost strength.
"Progress towards developing neutron tolerant magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers" Brian Reinhardt, Bernhard Tittmann, Joy Rempe, Joshua Daw, Gordon Kohse, David Carpenter, Michael Ames, Yakov Ostrovsky, Pradeep Ramuhalli, Robert Montgomery, Hualte Chien, Bernard Wernsman, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 1650 2015 1512-1520 Link
Current generation light water reactors (LWRs), sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), small modular reactors (SMRs), and next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs) produce harsh environments in and near the reactor core that can severely tax material performance and limit component operational life. To address this issue, several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) research programs are evaluating the long duration irradiation performance of fuel and structural materials used in existing and new reactors. In order to maximize the amount of information obtained from Material Testing Reactor (MTR) irradiations, DOE is also funding development of enhanced instrumentation that will be able to obtain in-situ, real-time data on key material characteristics and properties, with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. Such data are required to validate new multi-scale, multi-physics modeling tools under development as part of a science-based, engineering driven approach to reactor development. It is not feasible to obtain high resolution/microscale data with the current state of instrumentation technology. However, ultrasound-based sensors offer the ability to obtain such data if it is demonstrated that these sensors and their associated transducers are resistant to high neutron flux, high gamma radiation, and high temperature. To address this need, the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATRNSUF) is funding an irradiation, led by PSU, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor to test the survivability of ultrasound transducers. As part of this effort, PSU and collaborators have designed, fabricated, and provided piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are optimized to perform in harsh, high flux, environments. Four piezoelectric transducers were fabricated with either aluminum nitride, zinc oxide, or bismuth titanate as the active element that were coupled to either Kovar or aluminum waveguides and two magnetostrictive transducers were fabricated with Remendur or Galfenol as the active elements. Pulse-echo ultrasonic measurements of these transducers are made insitu. This paper will present an overview of the test design including selection criteria for candidate materials and optimization of test assembly parameters, data obtained from both out-of-pile and in-pile testing at elevated temperatures, and an assessment based on initial data of the expected performance of ultrasonic devices in irradiation conditions.
"Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test" Joshua Daw, Gordon Kohse, Joe Palmer, Brian Reinhardt, Joy Rempe, Pradeep Ramuhalli, Paul Keller, Robert Montgomery, Hual-Te Chien, Bernhard Tittmann, Jean-Francois Villard, ANIMMA - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Vol. 2015 Link
Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation.
Presentations:
"Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Mn+1AXn phases" Michel Barsoum, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, ICACC'14 January 27-31, (2014)
"Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Mn+1AXn phases" Michel Barsoum, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, TMS2014 February 15-19, (2014)
"Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Select Mn+1AXn phases" Michel Barsoum, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, CIMTEC'14 June 10-15, (2014)
"Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers" Joshua Daw, Gordon Kohse, Joe Palmer, Pradeep Ramuhalli, Brian Reinhardt, Joy Rempe, Bernhard Tittmann, 2013 Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurements Methods (ANIMMA 2013) June 23-27, (2013)
"Microstructural Defects in Neutron Irradiated Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC" Michel Barsoum, Lingfeng He, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, ICACC'15 January 25-29, (2015)
"Microstructure of In-Core Molten Salt Corrosion Hastelloy N® and 316 Stainless Steel" Michael Ames, David Carpenter, Gordon Kohse, Guiqiu Zheng, 2017 ANS Annual Meeting [unknown]
"Neutron Irradiation of MAX Phases" Michel Barsoum, Lingfeng He, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, Il Trovatore Meeting 2 July 23-25, (2015)
"Nuclear Scientific User Facility: Neutron Irradiation of MAX Phases" Michel Barsoum, Lingfeng He, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, NSUF User's Week June 22-26, (2015)
"Progress towards Developing Neutron Tolerant Magnetostrictive and Piezoelectric Transducers" Michael Ames, David Carpenter, Joshua Daw, Gordon Kohse, Yakov Ostrovsky, Brian Reinhardt, Joy Rempe, Bernhard Tittmann, 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference, July 20-25, (2014)
"The Effect of Neutron Irradiation on select MAX phases" Michel Barsoum, Elizabeth Hoffman, Gordon Kohse, Darin Tallman, International Conference and Exposition on Advanced Ceramics and Composites (ICACC) January 31-31, (2013) Link