"Analysis of structure and deformation behavior of AISI 316L tensile specimens from the second operational target module at the Spallation Neutron Source"
Maxim Gussev, David McClintock, Frank Garner,
Journal of Nuclear Materials
In an earlier publication, tensile testing was performed on specimens removed from the first two operational targets of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There were several anomalous features in the results. First, some specimens had very large elongations (up to 57%) while others had significantly smaller values (10-30%). Second, there was a larger than the usual amount of data scatter in the elongation results. Third, the stress-strain diagrams of nominally similar specimens spanned a wide range of behavior ranging from expected irradiation-induced hardening to varying levels of force drop after yield point and indirect signs of “traveling deformation wave” behavior associated with strain-induced martensite formation. To investigate the cause(s) of such variable tensile behavior, several specimens from Target 2, spanning the range of observed tensile behavior, were chosen for detailed microstructural examination using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. It was shown that the steel employed in the construction of the target contained an unexpected bimodal grain size distribution, containing very large out-of-specification grains surrounded by “necklaces” of grains of within-specification sizes. The large grains were frequently comparable to the width of the gauge section of the tensile specimen. The propensity to form martensite during deformation was shown to be accelerated by radiation but also to be very sensitive to the relative orientation of the grains with respect to the tensile axis. Specimens having large grains in the gauge that were most favorably oriented for production of martensite strongly exhibited the traveling deformation wave phenomenon, while those specimens with less favorably oriented grains had lesser or no degree of the wave effect, thereby accounting for the observed data scatter.
"Evaluation of microstructure stability at the interfaces of Al-6061 welds fabricated using ultrasonic additive manufacturing"
Niyanth Sridharan, Maxim Gussev, Chad Parish, Dieter Isheim, Davud Seidman, Kurt Terrani, Sudarsanam Babu,
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state additive manufacturing process that uses fundamental principles of ultrasonic welding and sequential layering of tapes to fabricate complex three-dimensional (3-D) components. One of the factors limiting the use of this technology is the poor tensile strength along the z-axis. Recent work has demonstrated the improvement of the z-axis properties after post-processing treatments. The abnormally high stability of the grains at the interface during post-weld heat treatments is, however, not yet well understood. In this work we use multiscale characterization to understand the stability of the grains during post-weld heat treatments. Aluminum alloy (6061) builds, fabricated using ultrasonic additive manufacturing, were post-weld heat treated at 180, 330 and 580 °C. The grains close to the tape interfaces are stable during post-weld heat treatments at high temperatures (i.e., 580 °C). This is in contrast to rapid grain growth that takes place in the bulk. Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography display a significant enrichment of oxygen and magnesium near the stable interfaces. Based on the detailed characterization, two mechanisms are proposed and evaluated: nonequilibrium nano-dispersed oxides impeding the grain growth due to grain boundary pinning, or grain boundary segregation of magnesium and oxygen reducing the grain boundary energy.
|"Examining the influence of stacking fault width on deformation twinning in an austenitic stainless steel" Gabriel Meric, Maxim Gussev, Kumar Sridharan, Scripta Materialia Vol. 157 2018 162-166 Link|
|"Microstructure analysis of laser beam weldments performed on neutron-irradiated 304L steel containing 3 and 8 appm helium" Maxim Gussev, Weicheng Zhong, Frank Garner, Paula Freyer, Jonathan Tatman, Jesse Werden, Journal of Nuclear Materials Vol. 563 2022 Link|
|"Rationalization of anisotropic mechanical properties of Al-6061 fabricated using ultrasonic additive manufacturing" Sudarsanam Babu, Maxim Gussev, Chad Parish, Niyanth Sridharan, Acta Materialia Vol. 117 2016 228-237 Link|
In Situ Straining of 10-dpa Neutron Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steels using Scanning Electron Microscope Electron Backscatter Diffraction - FY 2018 RTE 1st Call, #1262
Mechanical property and microstructural characterization of irradiated stainless steel via in situ SEM-EBSD mechanical testing. - FY 2019 RTE 1st Call, #1698
Radiation-accelerated, strain-induced martensitic transformation and its potential impact on performance of 304 stainless steel irradiated to high doses in PWRs following plant life extension - FY 2020 RTE 1st Call, #2954